This paper is a short synthesis of a book chapter by Penuel and Shepard on formative assessment and teaching. It describes different approaches to formative assessment and highlights the central role of theories of learning in analyzing different approaches and their effects.
Preferred citation: Shepard, L. A., Penuel, W. R., & Davidson, K. A. (2016). Using formative assessment to create coherent and equitable assessment systems. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado Boulder.